Construction of the international system of Versailles, according to the doctrine of Woodrow Wilson

Abstract

Mapping of the international system after the First World War took place in the Conference of Versailles, where a peace treaty was negotiated to end this war, and would reshape the world order. The key role in negotiating peace was handed to the United States of America, and its President Woodrow Wilson. This paper aims to elaborate the doctrine of US President Wilson, presented through the Fourteen Points, which were the basis for the international system that was created after First World War. Two of Wilson’s Fourteen Points, which are the object of study in this paper, had the most important impact on international relations, thereby transforming into international law principles, respected to this day: the right of the people for self-determination, which led to the destruction of multi-national empires, and the creation of a association of nations, which resulted in the establishment of the League of Nations, a predecessor of United Nations. The methodological approach used in this paper is analytical-theoretical, and is based on contemporary literature. It aims to identify the strong and weak sides of this doctrine, and its influence in the establishment of the Versailles international system, which only lasted twenty years. Conclusions from this paper are that the Fourteen Points not only served for the mapping of the Versailles international system but also for the establishment of preceding international systems. Many of those principles are the foundation of contemporary international relations.

References

Alan Sharp and Conan Fischer, “The Versailles settlement: enforcement, com-pliance, contested identities”, Diplomacy & Statecraft, nr. 16, 2005, ff. 419-422

Allen Lynch, “Woodrow Wilson and the principle of ‘national self-determina-tion’: a reconsideration”, Review of International Studies (British International Studies Association: 2002), 28.

André Tardieu, The Truth about the Treaty, Indianapolis: 1921

Betty Miller Utenberger, “Self-Determination”, Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy, 2002 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_gx5215/is_2002/ ai_n19132482

Charter of the United Nations 26 June 1945, San Francisco. Chapter I. Article 1. Point 2 http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/chapter1.shtml

“Conditions of peace”, January 22, 19 17, Address to the Senate. Selected adder-sses and public papers of Woodrow Wilson, New York: Boni and Liveright, 1918

Constitution of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, 1918. http://www.marxists.org/history/ussr/government/constitution/1918/

“Foresees harmony on freedom of seas”, The New York Times, December 12, 1918

“Freedom of the Seas?”, Time, Monday, Oct. 21, 1935

Gordon A. Craig and Alexander L. George. Force and Statecraft: Diplomatic Problems of Our Time. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995

Henry Kissinger, Does America need a foreign policy? (A ka nevojë Amerika për një politikë të jashtme?), Tirana: Plejad, 2004

Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy (Diplomacia), Tirana, 1999

Johann Caspar Bluntschli, Allgemeine Staatslehre, Stuttgart, 1875, f. 107

John T. Rourke and Mark A. Boyer, International politics on the world stage, Santiago : Dushkin/McGraw-Hill, 1996

Lisen Bashkurti, Albanian Diplomacy (Diplomacia shqiptare), Volume 1, Tirana: GEER, 2005

Macmillan, Margaret. Paris 1919: Six months that changed the world (gjashtë muaj që ndryshuan botën). Tirana: Plejad, 2006.

Stanford M. Lyman , Postmodernism and a Sociology of the Absurd and Other Essays on the “nouvelle Vague” in American Social Science, University of Arkansas Press, 1997.

Stefan Hobe, Otto Kimminich, Einführung in das Velkerecht, botimi VIII, Basel 2004

United States Department of State, Papers relating to the foreign relations of the United States, 1918. Supplement 1, The World War, Volume I, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1918

Urs Altermatt, Ethno-nationalism in Europe (Etnonacionalizmi në Europë), Tirana, 2002

Vladimir Ilich Lenin, Lenin’s Collected Works, Volume 20, Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1972

Vladimir Ilich Lenin, Selected Works, vol. 2, Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1977

Zhivojin M. Peric, Independence and war, or dependence and peace (Nezavisnost i rat ili zavisnost i mir). Arhiv za drustvene nauke, godina XI – drugo kolo, knjiga II (XIX) br. 1, Beograd: Administracija arhiva, 1921

Will Morrisey, Self-Government, the American Theme: Presidents of the Founding and Civil War, Lexington Books, 2006.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.21113/iir.v1i2.193

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com.

Up ↑

%d bloggers like this: